Pervasive Games: Theory and Design (Morgan Kaufmann Game Design Books)
Aesthetic meaning that the game strongly denied its ludic nature The gameplay centered around puzzle solving that was done by thousands of collaborating players Pervasive Game Genres If pervasive gaming is seen as games that blur the boundaries of game and ordinary life, it is obviously a broad category of games Subgenres of pervasive games share many properties and aesthetics, but are also unique and very different As these games are relatively new, genres are just emerging, but at least treasure hunts, alternate reality games, urban larps and assassination games seem to have become stable genres We also construct a categorization for future genres, such as the smart street sports, playful urban performances, urban adventure games and reality games Case Study C: Shelby Logan?
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Society, looks beyond pervasive games, discussing their cultural and societal relevance in a larger context. Killer is an extremely simple and compelling pervasive game that has spread to countless campuses since the 60? It is discussed as the first case example, since the simple game demonstrates pervasive gameplay in an understandable fashion. Killer displays all forms of pervasivity discussed in Chapter 1, including spatial, temporal and social expansions.
Games and Pervasive Games: There have been many definitions for pervasive games, and many names for this style of gaming. In this book we use a model based on magic circle discussed by Katie Salen and Eric Zimmerman; they discuss invasive games that penetrate the boundary of artificiality surrounding games. A model of three expansions is presented for analyzin the ways spatial, temporal and social boundaries of gameplay can be blurred.
Pervasive games bring pleasure of game to everyday life and spice the game with unmitigated tangibility of the ordinary world. Case Study B: The Beast: The boom of alternate reality gaming started from an advertising campaign promoting Spielberg?
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Pervasive Game Genres If pervasive gaming is seen as games that blur the boundaries of game and ordinary life, it is obviously a broad category of games. Subgenres of pervasive games share many properties and aesthetics, but are also unique and very different. As these games are relatively new, genres are just emerging, but at least treasure hunts, alternate reality games, urban larps and assassination games seem to have become stable genres. We also construct a categorization for future genres, such as the smart street sports, playful urban performances, urban adventure games and reality games.
Case Study C: Shelby Logan? Inspired by the movie Midnight Madness, a group of Stanford students developed their own way of combining high-tech puzzles with physical challenges and a road rally. In addition to quick wits and top-notch tools, the success in Shelby Logan?
The author, Joe Belfiore, has been a central designer and player in The Game scene for its entire history. Several design aspects of pervasive games could be investigated; however, we chose social interaction, because it has a particularly strong effect on the wellbeing of senior citizens 42 and is a specially flexible and interesting aspect that can be used to propose pervasive mechanics. Taking these factors into consideration, we designed and implemented a pervasive game to act as our experiment system and performed a feasibility study to evaluate if the system can be successfully used by the target audience, and if it affects their behaviour.
The next sections describe the game design and the study protocol. The basic premise of the game is that the player must collect cards, each of them having an animal and being of certain colour that indicates the level Figure 1. Different animals from the Japanese fauna or folklore were used. There is no hierarchy between animals, but levels vary from 1 violet to 4 gold. The goal of the game is to obtain at least one gold card for each animal.
The game stimulates players to walk around by asking them to collect the cards while visiting locations in the real-world — in this case, shrines around Kyoto city Figure 2 a. Players receive some cards when they enter a shrine for the first time, and, after that, they periodically receive more cards, the quantity and level of which are determined by how much they walked and how many hotspots they visited on the previous days.
Once inside a hotspot, a player can see their current cards Figure 2 b and also trade a certain number of cards of one level for one card of the next level.
Pervasive Games: Theory and Design (Morgan Kaufmann Game Design Books) [PDF] Full Ebook
Because there are four levels, it takes a long time to achieve the game's goal of having all the possible gold cards. By design, players with higher levels of physical activity can win the game faster. Since the game targets elderly people, special safety concerns were also considered. Players do not need to look at their smartphones while moving between shrines and are explicitly warned not to do so: if the game detects that the player is moving above a certain speed threshold, a flashy notification is shown, reminding them not to walk while playing.
Even though Shinpo deliberately uses specific thematic and abstractions — shrines and card game references — hoping to appeal to Japanese elderly people, the rationale behind the design is that collecting items is a widely enjoyed activity by people of different cultures, especially seniors. More importantly, this basic mechanism can be adapted in all elements of the tetrad, since it can be easily transported to different cultural contexts e.
These adaptations, when limited within a closed context, could also be presented simultaneously to different groups of players to control for their specific experience. For instance, the colour schemes or the illustration style could be changed and evaluated for their appeal to different audiences: different players could see different colour schemes or different styles, either statically, based on profiles set a priori, or dynamically, based on information such as location, time or weather.
According to our choice for the initial evaluation, a variation of the game was created to include social interaction. Since the nature of the social interaction could also generate different effects on people's experiences, or even on their willingness to interact at all, the proposed mechanisms also account for two types of interactions: those that happen in person and those that happen exclusively through virtual means. One additional design choice was to focus only on cooperation on this first step i. The proposed variation includes these additional rules:.
To evaluate the game, we performed a feasibility study with volunteer community dwelling senior citizens who attend a program run by Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine that offers weekly sessions of exercise-based cognitive training at a local community centre. The protocol shown in Figure 3 was used.
No previous experience was required to join the experiment; volunteers received a pre-configured smartphone and were given an explanation about its basic operation. For the first week, they were asked to simply carry the smartphone around, so we could measure the baseline level of physical activity. On the following two weeks, the subjects were asked to play the game social interaction version.
Throughout all this period, participants had access to a support desk to clarify any doubts or solve technical problems. For safety reasons, volunteers were instructed to play the game only during daylight, to walk only through public open spaces and paved streets, to pay special attention to their surroundings and to abstain from walking while looking at the game screen.
At the end of the study, all remaining participants were asked to answer questionnaires to assess the usability of the game and the smartphone and to report their experience during the game as well as their sense of social presence. Positively and negatively phrased questions evaluating the same aspects were included and, in that case of negative questions, the answers were used with the weight of the items inverted.
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The step count data for these players were excluded from the dataset and they did not answer the post-intervention questionnaires , but the demographic and previous experience report below include them. For the questionnaire that assessed previous experience with games, one person reported playing only non-electronic games, one person reported playing only electronic games, and two people said they play both types of games. Cited games included Japanese chess, Go, solitaire and mental training games.
The respondents use either the PC or a portable console e. Nintendo 3DS to play. All respondents played at least once a week.
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As for playing with other people i. The results for number of steps are shown in Table 1. In Table 2 , the total number of each type of game actions and number of unique players who performed them are reported. According to the questionnaires answered at the end of the study Max. Players were able to understand the game rules and goals 2. The game music was disliked by most players 1. Players enjoyed the challenge level of the game 2.
There was a general sense that the game stimulates players to explore their surroundings and discover new things 2. There was strong approval of the game theme Japanese shrines 2. The answers show mixed results for the sense of immersion 1.
Pervasive game - Wikipedia
Finally, as expected, since the game has simple rules, there was not much sense of creative freedom 0. This is coherent with the proportionally very small amount of social interaction related actions Table 2. The results of the feasibility study show that the choice of theme and visual style for the proposed game was adequate and that elderly people can understand the game rules and their goals while playing. Participants also felt challenged and engaged, enjoying the chance to explore their surroundings.
On the other hand, there might be difficulties when it comes to learning complex controls. Since a significant proportion of the participants had some level of previous experience with technology, and recent evidence shows that this number will continue to grow, we believe that recruiting only people with experience using smartphones may be a good strategy to allow for more complex interactions and motivation mechanisms inside the game. The weakest point of the design was the proposed social interaction mechanics that were very rarely used by the participants.