Who Gets What?: Domestic Influences on International Negotiations Allocating Shared Resources
Space law also encompasses national laws, and many countries have passed national space legislation in recent years.
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The Outer Space Treaty gives responsibility for regulating space activities, including both government and private sector, to the individual countries where the activity is taking place. If a national of, or an organization incorporated in one country launches a spacecraft in a different country, interpretations differ as to whether the home country or the launching country has jurisdiction.
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The Outer Space Treaty also incorporates the UN Charter by reference, and requires parties to ensure that activities are conducted in accordance with other forms of international law such as customary international law the custom and practice of states. The advent of commercial activities like space mining , space tourism , private exploration, and the development of many commercial spaceports, is leading many countries [ which?
The developing nations are concerned that the spacefaring nations will monopolize space resources. Several nations have recently updated their statutory space law, among them Luxembourg in ,  the United States in ,  and Japan, with the Basic Space Law in Objects in geostationary orbits remain stationary over a point on the earth due to gravity. There are numerous advantages in being able to use these orbits, mostly due to the unique ability to send radio frequencies to and from satellites to collect data and send signals to various locations.
The United Nations Committee on Peaceful Uses of Outer Space has approved seven nonmilitary uses for these orbits: communications , meteorology , earth resources and environment, navigation and aircraft control , testing of new systems, astronomy , and data relay. This has led to conflict between different countries wishing access to the same orbital slots countries at the same longitude but differing latitudes.
These disputes are addressed through the ITU allocation mechanism.
"Who Gets What? Domestic Influences on International Negotiations Alloc" by Áslaug Ásgeirsdóttir
Countries located at the Earth's equator have also asserted their legal claim to control the use of space above their territory,  notably in , when many countries located at the Earth's equator created the Bogota Declaration , in which they asserted their legal claim to control the use of space above their territory. Future developments using geostationary orbits may include an expansion of services in telecommunication, broadcasting, and meteorology.
For example, broadcasting and telecommunication services of satellites orbiting above Earth from certain nations may accidentally "spill over" into other nations' territory. This may prompt conflict with nations that wish to restrict access to information and communication. Ethics can be defined as "the task of being human. Early discussions regarding space ethics revolved around whether or not the space frontier should be available for use, gaining prominence at the time of the Soviet Union and United States' Space Race.
More recent discussions focus on the need for the international community to draft and institute a code of space ethics to prevent the destruction of the space environment. Many ethical questions arise from the difficulty of defining the term " space. Lower limits are generally estimated to be about 50 kilometers. More difficulties arise trying to define the upper bounds of "space," as it would require more inquiry into the nature of the universe and the role of earth along with within it.
While this field of the law is still in its infancy, it is in an era of rapid change and development. Arguably the resources of space are infinite. If commercial space transportation becomes widely available, with substantially lower launch costs, then all countries will be able to directly reap the benefits of space resources. In that situation, it seems likely that consensus will be much easier to achieve with respect to commercial development and human settlement of outer space.
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High costs are not the only factor preventing the economic exploitation of space: it is argued that space should be considered as a pristine environment worthy of protection and conservation, and that the legal regime for space should further protect it from being used as a resource for Earth's needs. As of , NASA's plans to capture an asteroid by has raised questions about how space law would be applied in practice. In , the nation of Luxembourg has set out a formal legal framework which ensures that private companies engaged in mining resources in space have rights to those resources.
Michael Dodge, of Long Beach, Mississippi , was the first law school graduate to receive a space law certificate in the United States. There is a growing emphasis on space law in academia.
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Meredith, space lawyer and adjunct professor of Satellite Communications and Space Law. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Area of national and international law governing activities in outer space. Legal Career Path. Retrieved International Telecommunications Union. The American Journal of International Law. Johnson , Carl Albert , and George P.
Nuclear Weapons and Contemporary International Law. Martinus Nijhoff Publishers. Journal of Space Law. Thus in the Norwegian fleets were a greater threat to continued Icelandic harvests than in subsequent years. Also, Iceland had a much smaller stake in the successful management of both herring and cod than did Norway, and could therefore wield the threat of non-cooperation. This is exactly what Iceland did, eventually forcing Norway to agree to Icelandic terms or risk stock collapses like those experienced in the s. If Norwegian fishers had been more powerful they might have delayed these agreements, but eventually they too would Project MUSE promotes the creation and dissemination of essential humanities and social science resources through collaboration with libraries, publishers, and scholars worldwide.
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